Transfer Credit Information

Transfer Credit Information

Franklin University works to demonstrate responsiveness and flexibility toward learners with respect to programmatic, administrative and academic processes. As these processes relate to articulation and transfer, Franklin is guided by the work of the Ohio Board of Regents (OBR), working with public two-year and four-year institutions to facilitate articulation and transfer. These policies are maintained electronically at http://regents.ohio.gov/transfer/policy.

The OBR preamble for articulation and transfer states that “the many public and independent colleges and universities residing in Ohio offer a variety of courses, programs and undergraduate degrees. Students use these educational resources in a wide variety of ways, choosing a few courses, a few terms, a full degree, or multiple degrees to meet their educational goals. While some students may begin and complete their education all within one institution, many find it necessary to take course(s) as a guest/transient student in other institutions along the way. Some have also taken transferable college level courses while still enrolled in high school under the Postsecondary Enrollment Option Program (PSEOP).” (Ohio Board of Regents, Preamble)

Franklin was founded to serve the educational needs of working adults and has maintained a commitment to that mission throughout its history of more than 100 years.  Franklin University values the work of the Ohio Board of Regents relative to transfer and articulation and has chosen to use the OBR principles for articulation and transfer for guidance. These OBR principles are extended to credit transferred in from accredited institutions outside Ohio as described in "Transfer Credit from Regionally Accredited Institutions." In addition, credit is sometimes transferred in from accredited and non-accredited institutions in and outside of Ohio; the transfer of these credits is addressed in "Transfer Credit from Non-Regionally Accredited Institutions /Organizations and Non-coursework Credit."

The university incorporates quality, comparability, appropriateness, and applicability as central components in transfer credit decisions. A comprehensive transfer credit team (Office of Transfer and Articulation) is assigned to this function, with a periodic review of articulation and transfer credit policies and procedures by the Transfer and Articulation Review Committee. These transfer credit processes are designed to uphold the integrity of the degree and to decrease undesirable variability in the credit transfer process.

The Review Committee, chaired by the Provost and Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs, is comprised of 1) faculty members appointed by the Provost, 2) the Academic Standards Committee of Faculty Senate, 3) individuals from student services appointed by the Dean of Students, 4) the University Registrar, and 5) liaisons who represent the university’s educational alliances. In their review and deliberation, the Review Committee members consider the following tenets:

  • Transfer of course credits and other credit must reflect the academic integrity of the Franklin degree.
  • Franklin is committed to facilitating student success by assuring that students are prepared to do the upper-level coursework required for the awarding of the baccalaureate degree.
  • Franklin applies the guidance of higher education agencies such as the North Central Association Higher Learning Commission (HLC), the Council on Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA), the Ohio Board of Regents (OBR), and the American Council on Education (ACE) in developing transfer policies.  The OBR work done on transfer and articulation in Ohio for Ohio state assisted institutions is a key component of Franklin’s policies and procedures regarding transfer and articulation.
  • At students’ request, Franklin evaluates educational work and occupational experience to assure those experiences, when appropriate and relevant, can be used to meet degree requirements.
  • The Review Committee engages in periodic and systematic reviews of the transfer credit function and considers these tenets in its review and deliberation process. 
  • Based on these aforementioned tenets, the Review Committee makes recommendations to the Provost who then recommends consistent transfer policy and procedures to the university President.

The Review Committee is responsible for requesting and reviewing research studies from the office of Institutional Effectiveness to assess the extent to which transfer and non-transfer students are successful in Franklin coursework and in achieving program-specific and general education outcomes. The Review Committee will meet twice a year, in November and May, with additional meetings called as needed.

 

Ohio Board of Regents Guidelines

Like all institutions of higher education, Franklin accepts transfer credit from regionally accredited institutions of higher education and applies that credit to the various degree programs. As stated by OBR, “the determination of the acceptance of transfer credit and the determination of the application of transfer credit to graduation requirements and specific program or major requirements are to be treated separately by the receiving institution within the stipulations of this policy.”  (Ohio Board of Regents, Transfer Policy)  Because most Franklin graduates have transfer credit from one or more institutions, the Office of Transfer and Articulation reviews transfer credit requests continuously and maintains an extensive database of courses and their Franklin comparability and applicability.

Ohio Board of Regents Course Equivalency Standard

The OBR equivalency standard focuses on the match of learning outcomes to articulate specific levels of learning mastery.  Franklin, in developing course equivalencies and comparabilities, uses the 70% industry standard of OBR, along with course descriptions, syllabi, textbooks, and other more traditional processes in determining comparability.

Bilateral Articulation Agreements

OBR defines bilateral articulation agreements as the written agreements reached between individual colleges and universities which detail course equivalency, program-to-program linkages, and undergraduate requirements. Franklin maintains bilateral articulation agreements, particularly for the Community College Alliance, and it will continue to maintain those agreements as described in Section 3 of this manual.

Transfer Module

The Transfer Module is a subset or a complete set of a college’s or university’s general education requirements that represents a body of knowledge and academic skills common to Ohio’s colleges and universities. For Ohio’s state assisted colleges and universities, a transfer module completed at one institution is accepted in total by another institution. The Transfer Module contains 36-40 semester hours (54-60 quarter credit hours) of course credit. Additional information from OBR about the transfer module can be found at http://regents.ohio.gov/transfer/policy/definitions.php and in Transfer Module Guidelines, Appendix C of the OBR document (Ohio Board of Regents, Appendix C).

Franklin University accepts the Transfer Module from all of Ohio’s colleges and universities, and equivalent models from schools outside of the state of Ohio.

Regional Accreditation

The OBR guidelines and requirements that govern the acceptance of transfer credit define transfer credit as college-level courses from Ohio institutions of higher education which are accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Higher Learning Commission or other regional accrediting commissions which have been recognized by the Council on Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). For the purposes of the OBR policy, institutions accredited by national or professional agencies which are recognized by CHEA, but not also accredited by a regional accrediting commission, will be considered non-accredited. Transfer credit may be granted for courses taken at non-accredited institutions, and Franklin faculty considers such credit on a course-by-course basis if deemed appropriate.

Recognition of Associate’s Degrees

OBR has established policies to encourage the completion of the associate’s degrees. Individuals who have earned A.A., A.S. or Applied Associate degrees with an overall GPA of 2.0 or better, receive transfer credit for all college-level courses which they have passed. Pass/fail courses, Credit by Examination courses, Experiential Learning courses and other non-traditional credit courses which meet these conditions will be posted to the record and will appear on the student’s transcript.

Franklin University offers both associate’s and bachelor’s degrees and recognizes the successfully completed A.A. degrees, A.S. degrees, and Applied Associate degrees from other colleges and universities.

College-level Coursework

As defined by OBR, college-level coursework is a course that 1) is not remedial or developmental, 2) carries one or more credit hours, and 3) is eligible to count toward graduation at the sending institution. These courses are taught at an institution of higher education for which credit is granted toward a particular degree(s). These courses are taught at an intellectual and content level which goes beyond courses taught at the high school level. For the purposes of the OBR policy, the sending institution determines which courses are college-level and thereby eligible for transfer to a receiving institution.

Franklin University has adopted OBR’s definition of college-level coursework, however, University faculty reserve the right to determine whether a course applies to a degree program. 

Passing Grades

As of Fall 2005, Ohio public institutions of higher education accept and apply all transfer coursework with a letter grade of D or higher as the institution would for a native student under the business rules and academic policies of the receiving institution. This policy was adopted to ensure the equitable treatment of transfer students with native students across Ohio’s public institutions. The 1990 Ohio Articulation and Transfer Policy section which requires the acceptance of all college level courses which students have passed (“D”) remains in effect for all students. This policy does not override institutional admissions standards and/or requirements of entrance into a specific academic program. Consistent with the spirit of the policy, there is no universal minimum grade or quality points for the acceptance of credit and thresholds for this are set by institutional policy.

Franklin University has institutional policies that incorporate portions of the Transfer of D Grades Policy of the Ohio Board of Regents.

Course Numbering

Because of variance in the curricular design and course numbering among two-year and four-year institutions, the division of upper and lower courses is not always clear and absolute. OBR suggests that there must be latitude for exceptions to the OBR guidelines. For example, faculty may consider a community or technical college course equivalent in nature and content to an upper division university course. In this instance, faculty could accept the course as upper division credit. Courses may be deemed comparable in content and learning outcomes, regardless of their lower and upper division status. Franklin adheres to OBR and Servicemembers Opportunity College guidelines which encourage accepting the course at the level at which it is taught at the receiving institution.

Course Length

If the credit from a course with fewer hours is at least two-thirds of the course with greater hours, the course should be deemed comparable in length. For example, a two-semester hour course may not be comparable to a four-semester hour course, according to OBR guidelines.

Free Electives

OBR guidelines define a free elective as college level courses taken for credit outside of specific university, collegial or departmental degree requirements. Franklin University classifies General Education electives and University electives as free electives in its degree requirements.

Adult Career-Technical Education

“The language in section 3333.162 of the Ohio Revised Code requires the Board of Regents and the Ohio Department of Education to develop policies and procedures ensuring that students at an adult career-technical education institution or secondary career-technical education institution can transfer agreed upon technical courses completed there (that adhere to industry standards) to any state institution of higher education ‘without unnecessary duplication or institutional barriers’ (Ohio Board of Regents, Background). Specific fields of study where course equivalencies are considered include nursing, information technology, and medical assisting.

Franklin accepts career-technical education programs and applies these credits to degree requirements in the completion majors offered by the university. Some coursework can be applied, course by course, if deemed equivalent by the faculty.

Degree Structure and Completion Degrees

Franklin recognizes the value of credit and knowledge obtained from adult career-technical education programs and applies this credit to degree requirements in the university’s undergraduate degree completion programs. The completion degree allows students to transfer coursework into a baccalaureate degree designed to complement their technical expertise. For example, students with an AAS degree in Law Enforcement can apply that degree toward a B.S. degree with a major in Public Safety Management.

The completion degrees allow the students to extend their education into studies that build on their body of knowledge acquired in paraprofessional/professional programs of study. Up to 24 credit hours may be counted toward the students’ Bachelor’s degrees. The degree completion programs provide students with the theory and tools to support intelligent leadership practices in their professions.

Placement and Assessment

New degree-seeking students are required to take Franklin University placement tests in reading, writing, mathematics and computer literacy.  Results of these tests determine if any preparatory and developmental education courses are required.  Transfer students may have certain tests waived due to previous course credit at another institution.  Additionally, students who have taken college entrance exams, such as the SAT or ACT, and score at a certain proficiency threshold may be exempt from taking certain placement tests.  Student Enrollment Advisors or Academic Advisors will advise students on the placement tests required, ways to prepare for tests, and appeal procedures.

Transfer Credit Process Overview

Franklin faculty have established a consistent process for accepting credit from institutions that are regionally accredited.

In describing the application of credit hours to degree requirements, the faculty evaluates the credit hours relative to the following degree areas: general education, the business or professional core, major area, major area electives, university electives, and/or technical coursework. The degree programs may vary in the number of credit hours required in these areas. The purpose of these degree areas is to have relevant transfer coursework appropriately applied to fulfill Franklin University degree requirements. (See the Franklin Academic Bulletin for specific degree requirements.)

Courses evaluated by faculty for comparability are added to the Transfer Credit comparability database which, in 2007, had course comparability determinations from more than 5,000 sources. The database continues to be revised and expanded as determinations are made. For students in the Community College Alliance (CCA) program, many course comparabilities have been systematically determined as described in Section 5 of this transfer manual. Course comparabilities are listed on the CCA Transfer Guides and are a tool for Franklin advisors working with students.

Initial Review Process

The faculty and Transfer and Articulation Review Committee have established the following procedures for accepting and applying coursework from regionally accredited institutions:

  1. Determine whether the sending institution is regionally accredited.
  2. Review transcript to determine if it is a duplicate with no additional course work or a previously evaluated transcript with additional completed course work.
  3. Determine the sending institution’s calendar system, and convert quarter credit hours to semester credit hours, as necessary (1 quarter hour = 2/3  semester hour).
  4. Identify additional resources that may be needed (i.e., CCA Transfer Guide, SOC Transferability Tables).
  5. Review legend from sending institution transcript to determine grades that are eligible for transfer.
  6. Determine if an associate’s or bachelor’s degree was granted from sending institution.
  7. Exclude all courses with grades that are ineligible for transfer (i.e., failing grade, non-credit courses, etc.). Determine if any grades of D are eligible for transfer.
  8. Determine course comparabilities of remaining eligible course work.
    1. Review pre-determined comparabilities from transfer credit database.
    2. For courses without a pre-determined comparability, additional criteria are considered in an effort to determine comparability.
  9. If comparability is unclear after reviewing the Criteria for Comparability Consideration, one of the following steps is taken:
    1. Under the guidance of faculty, the Office of Transfer and Articulation awards general credit based on the level of the course and area of study and notes on the evaluation that additional information is required for additional review (typically a syllabus).
    2. A Credit Recommendation Form is submitted with additional criteria as available to the appropriate faculty member(s) to request a determination of course comparability.

Appeal Process

Franklin University offers students the opportunity to appeal any transfer credit decision to the appropriate faculty member(s).  To initiate the transfer credit appeal process, students are required to contact their academic advisors.  The process is as follows:

  • The academic advisor works with the student to complete the appropriate sections of the Credit Recommendation Form
  • The form and any additional information (syllabus, etc.) are forwarded to the Office of Transfer and Articulation where the information is verified to be as complete as possible.
  • The evaluator, with the guidance and support of faculty, reviews and considers the additional documentation to determine if credit can be awarded as the student requested.
  • The faculty determines if the request is approved as submitted, approved as revised, or denied (in general or in the specific case).  If the request is denied, the faculty provides the reason for the denial.
  • The faculty returns the decision with attached documentation to the transfer credit evaluator. 
  • The evaluator notifies the academic advisor of the decision.
  • The evaluator enters the decision into the transfer credit database accordingly.

Decision Records

The documentation for reviewed course transfer equivalencies is retained in the transfer equivalency database as part of the University’s student information system for future reference. This documentation is retained to ensure consistency of standards for transfer credit evaluations.

 

Non-Regionally Accredited Institutions

Franklin recognizes that quality academic offerings come from multiple sources. The faculty have established a process for reviewing coursework from non-accredited institutions, using the OBR definition of those institutions not regionally accredited. Students who request credit from work completed at non-accredited institutions must complete the Credit Review Form.

Process for Non-Regionally Accredited Institutions

  1. The student must provide the following information, which outlines the criteria for accepting the coursework: 
    1. Defined Learning Outcomes or Objectives
    2. Description of Controlled Environment/Class Hours
    3. Textbook Information
    4. A transcript, certificate of completion, or equivalency
  2. The academic advisor completes the appropriate sections of the Credit Review Form.
  3. The form and any additional information are forwarded to the Office of Transfer and Articulation where information is verified.
  4. The information is then reviewed by faculty who determines technical credit or specific course credit. The faculty or, in the case of technical credit applied to degree completion programs, the Program Chair determines if the request is approved as submitted, approved as revised, or denied. If the request is denied, the faculty or Program Chair provides the reason for the denial. In some cases, the faculty or Program Chair may ask the student to provide additional information or clarification before a decision is made.
  5. The Office of Transfer and Articulation receives the information and decision from the faculty or Program Chair and notifies the academic advisor and the student of the decision.
  6. The Office of Transfer and Articulation enters the decision into the database and scans the documentation into the system.

 

 

Franklin University faculty, in reviewing the credit requests for coursework taken at non-accredited institutions, considers the review components required by other types of accrediting agencies. Appendix 4: Criteria for Comparability Consideration lists the review components that the U.S. Department of Education requires accrediting agencies to consider. This appendix also identifies the components reviewed by the American Council on Education (ACE) and the National Program on Non-collegiate Sponsored Instruction (PONSI). Franklin faculty considers that transfer credit from institutions and organizations accredited by CHEA-approved agencies is transferable. Franklin’s transfer process includes accepting coursework from CHEA-approved institutions and organizations according to the transfer processes outlined in "Transfer Credit from Non-Regionally Accredited Institutions/Organizations and Non-coursework Credit."

In addition, transfer credit may be accepted for prior coursework and other experiences including tests, training seminars, and adult vocational training. These requests are handled on a case-by-case basis, use the Credit Review Form, are submitted to faculty for review, and documented in the Office of Transfer and Articulation.

Exception Based Training Programs Not Accredited by a Body Recognized by CHEA

If prospective transfer students can demonstrate that the training program(s) they have completed are comparable to a vocational/technical program’s body of knowledge leading to a paraprofessional/professional specialization, the coursework may be acceptable as technical credit for a completion degree. The process used for evaluating vocational and technical programs is applied.

Servicemember Opportunity Colleges (SOC)

Franklin University is a member of the Servicemember Opportunity Colleges. SOC is for individuals in the armed services who are interested in college but find it difficult to pursue a degree because of problems related to service transfer and meeting degree requirements.

Upon accepting the student, Franklin University acts as the academic repository and counseling/advising agent for the student. During the enlistment period, the student takes college-level courses approved by Franklin faculty to meet the degree requirements. Credits for these courses are added to Franklin University’s academic repository.

Coursework taken per the Student Agreement will be transferred to Franklin University according to the SOC Transferability Tables. The Student Agreement allows military personnel to complete a degree even after separation from military service, with the assurance that coursework will transfer to Franklin University.

Franklin faculty participates in the review of coursework for inclusion in SOC category codes, which indicate a transfer guarantee. In transferring credit, Franklin University 1) honors the SOC agreements, 2) requires that no more than 25 percent of the coursework be completed at Franklin, and 3) awards credit based on transfer guarantees in approved SOC categories.

Active duty Army personnel may also qualify to participate in GoArmyEd as described in "Articulation and Transfer Processes and Educational Alliances."

Other Military Programs

Franklin University is a GoArmyEd partner, an eArmyU education partner, a SOCAD (2 and 4), SOCCOAST-4, SOCGUARD, and College of the American Soldier (ConAP) college. These programs allow military personnel to complete a two-year or four-year degree while they serve their country.

Proficiency Examinations

Franklin University recognizes and accepts a number of proficiency examinations. If students are interested in using CLEP, DANTES, Excelsior, or other exams, they work with the Student Learning Center. Franklin uses the American Council on Education (ACE) minimum standards in determining college-level comparability for these exams. If a student receives credit as a result of a standardized test, the credit is added to the student’s transcript. This credit does not count toward student residency.

Portfolio Credit

The Portfolio Credit Program is coordinated by the staff in the Student Learning Center (SLC) under the guidance of faculty. Students prepare a portfolio, and credit decisions are made by the appropriate faculty member.

Franklin University Proficiency Exams (FUPE)

Franklin awards academic credit based on faculty-created course-specific proficiency exams. These exams are available to students whose learning from experience, training, or independent reading is equivalent to that gained in the classroom. Students work with their academic advisors to identify any coursework for which FUPEs might serve as alternatives to classroom work.

Residency Requirements Related to these Credits

Information regarding proficiency exams and portfolios is in the university’s Academic Bulletin. Proficiency examinations and portfolio credit may be used in any combination to accumulate a maximum of 32 credit hours toward the associate’s degree or 84 credit hours toward the bachelor’s degree. Credit awarded through proficiency examination or portfolio evaluation does not reduce the hours required toward residence.

International Student Transfer Credit

Decisions regarding the transfer of credit from international institutions require an evaluation of the country’s educational system and often require a translation of the transcript. Decisions are guided by three documents approved by faculty and the Provost: Assessment of Authenticity and Nature of Credential for 1) International High School Equivalency, 2) International Undergraduate Students, and 3) International Graduate School Applicants. These documents deal with the assessment of authenticity and the nature of the credential, high school equivalency evaluation of a non-US credential, and the accreditation of the institution or program. The Office of Transfer and Articulation uses reliable resources including AACRAO’s EDGE, UNESCO’s International Association of Universities (IAU) online database, World Education Services (WES) online database, and a host of advisors and contacts from other universities both inside and outside the US. Many books have sections titled “Advice for Admissions Officers.” It is often necessary to ask the student to seek additional information which may include but is not limited to official translations from an independent third party of course descriptions, syllabi, etc., and to provide contact information to allow the Transfer and Articulation Office to verify the information provided by the student. These admission processes are important whether or not the student is applying for transfer credit. The three documents referenced here are available on the university’s intranet.

If the students are applying for admission into one of Franklin’s graduate programs, a transcript evaluation is completed that includes computing the students’ GPAs and translating them to the US system.

The university has two types of educational alliances that are an integral part of its mission and success: the Community College Alliance (CCA) and GoArmyEd, a program that allows soldiers to continue their education while serving in the military.

The Office of Transfer and Articulation, in reviewing transfer credit for CCA and GoArmyEd students, uses the university processes and procedures. There are some processes specific to these alliances.

Definition of the Community College Alliance (CCA) and Transfer Guides

The university launched CCA in 1998 as a partnership between two-year technical and community colleges and Franklin. In this program, students complete their associate’s degrees and approximately 24 additional hours (bridge courses) at the community college. Students then complete a minimum of 40 hours at Franklin in one of the undergraduate majors. 

When a community college joins CCA, the college and Franklin develop a Transfer Guide which identifies how the associate degree and subsequent community college coursework are transferred into and meet degree requirements at Franklin. The guides are jointly determined by Franklin University and the community college. An annual review process incorporates changes in both the Franklin and community college curricula.

New transfer guides are built by the Office of Transfer and Articulation, which reviews course descriptions in the community college catalog, and compares them to the Franklin course descriptions. The guides are negotiated and agreed upon by Franklin University and the community colleges. Any changes in the Franklin curriculum that affect the transfer guides are communicated and agreed upon with the community colleges. Any curricular change at Franklin impacts the CCA transfer guides, which are reviewed and updated annually by the Office of Transfer and Articulation.

Definition of GoArmyEd and Installation Education Centers

 Active duty soldiers who wish to pursue college degrees can do so through their installation Education Centers. In addition to official college transcripts, the Office of Transfer and Articulation reviews military training and job experiences as outlined in the Army American Council on Education Registry Transcript System (AARTS). In addition, Franklin University adheres to Servicemembers Opportunity College Guidelines.

Principles for Curriculum Transfer

Franklin University acknowledges the complexity of the transfer credit landscape in American higher education. This complexity includes differences in semester and quarter hours, degree structures, outcomes specification, course calendars, and specificity in course materials presented for review. The faculty, in collaboration with the Registrar’s Office, has the responsibility to ensure all credit transferred into the university meets the academic standards set forth by the institution.

There are many avenues by which credit can be transferred, accepted, and applied to programs of study. Franklin has incorporated the guidelines set forth by its authorizing body, the Ohio Board of Regents (OBR), regarding the transportability of college level credit to provide a consistent foundation for the transfer credit process.

In efforts to assure maximum transfer of relevant college-level credit and to reduce the likelihood of students taking courses for which they have prior credit, Franklin University articulates and collaborates with other institutions on curriculum transfer. Articulation agreements entered into with regionally accredited educational institutions express the desire for Franklin to work with the institution to assure transportability of the totality of relevant curriculum from the sending institution. The pathway through which courses are evaluated and identified for transfer is specified in the transfer guides that are created in partnership with the sending institution. The transfer guides document the match between the curricular outcomes and courses of the sending institution and those of Franklin University. Transfer guides are reviewed each academic year to identify any changes of the curriculum, at either the sending institution and/or Franklin University, and to ensure course transfer practices remain current and relevant.

Franklin also recognizes that the credit hours at the sending institutions may not fulfill the credit hour requirements of Franklin in general education, the business or professional core, and major areas. When these credit hour differences occur, Franklin allows students to make up those hours with appropriate related coursework. Franklin does not deny the transfer of appropriate credit and does not require students to retake individual courses. By maintaining academic integrity through this transfer policy and providing the needed services and value to students, Franklin demonstrates dedication to and support of students’ prior learning and educational goals.

Process for Determining if Prior Coursework is Transferable

The "Criteria for Comparability Consideration" provides an overview of how college-level coursework and vocational-technical academic credit are accepted into the university’s degree programs, based on whether the coursework is delivered by an institution or organization that is regionally accredited or accredited by a body recognized by CHEA. The directory of CHEA recognized organizations is available at http://www.chea.org/directories/index.asp

The "Transfer Credit Flowchart" illustrates the visual decision path of how credit is reviewed and applied to a student’s official evaluation and degree audit at Franklin University.

Transfer Minimums and Addressing Deficiencies

Transfer Minimums are an established minimum number of semester hours that a transfer student must have to meet the requirement for each course. Consistent with OBR standards, the credit hour minimums are set at two-thirds of requirement. Specific calculations of credit hour minimums for Franklin are shown below:

  • Franklin’s 4 Semester Hour Courses = 2.67 Semester Hour Transfer Minimum
  • Franklin’s 2 Semester Hour Courses = 1.33 Semester Hour Transfer Minimum
  • Franklin’s 1 Semester Hours Courses = 0.67 Semester Hour Transfer Minimum

Students may be deficient in credit hour requirements and degree components and can fill deficiencies in the following ways:

  1. General Education Core deficiencies of three hours or fewer may be met with general education courses, major area electives, or university electives. Deficiencies of four hours or more must be met with general education electives. (Effective for new students beginning Winter 2007)
  2. Business Core deficiencies may be met with major area electives or business core equivalent credit.
  3. Major Area deficiencies must be met with major area electives.
  4. For students who have English as a Second Language (ESL): All ESL courses must be completed prior to taking college level courses. Students meet with their academic advisor to discuss ESL placement test results. (CCA students complete ESL at the community college.)

Applying credits to university electives

Each degree component has a specific number of credit hours that are required. If a transfer student has more than the maximum number of college-level credit hours applicable to that component, the additional hours may be transferred in as university elective hours.

Age of Credit

Program Chairs recommend standards for the age of credit that can be applied to courses in their disciplines.

Maintaining the Transfer Course Database

The course database is reviewed on a regular basis and is updated as new courses are reviewed by faculty. The database entries are specific to a program year (fall through summer academic terms), and they are reviewed every year. The course title and course descriptions are reviewed first in determining comparability. The level of the course, prerequisites and subsequent courses are considered next in order to identify the role of a particular course in the curriculum. If there are questions regarding whether the course should be included in the database as specific course credit, general transfer credit, or not included in the database, the information about the course is submitted to the appropriate faculty or Program Chair for review.

Franklin University recognizes that course content and curricula change with some frequency, particularly in evolving technical fields. Fall curriculum changes for Franklin and collaborating institutions provide a catalyst for updates to CCA transfer guides, databases, and the university website. Although each data entry point is important, priority is given to those providing the most impact. 


  1. Since a significant portion of Franklin's transfer population comes from CCA students, transfer guides remain the top priority during this peak season of change and influx of new students.
  2. Database updates for CCA schools and top transfer institutions provide accurate data for both academic advisors and transfer credit evaluators and are the next area of focus.
  3. The Office of Transfer and Articulation loads new CCA transfer guides on Franklin's website for use as marketing and customer service tools.
  4. Non-essential databases become the focus of attention as the department concentrates on the top 200 non-essential schools.
  5. On an ongoing basis, databases are updated in the process of transfer credit evaluations, as evaluators come across needed changes and assess new equivalencies. Only transcripted courses are reviewed and updated in the database.


Franklin University Articulation and Transfer Policy and Procedures Manual
Appendix 1: Degree Requirements and the Application of Technical Credit and Adult Career-Technical Credit

Franklin University has developed completion majors that build on prior technical education at the associate's or vocational/technical level and complement this background with management education. The first table below shows the number of credits required in each of the five components of the undergraduate degree. The second table shows how credit is transferred into the five components. Illustrated are the university's completion degrees and, for comparison, the Bachelor's Degree in Business Administration.  In the degree completion programs, 24 semester hours of technical credit applies toward degree requirements. The 24 hours are drawn from the business core (8 hours), the major area (8 hours), and the university electives (8 hours).


Transfer credit from regionally accredited institutions and organizations may apply to any area of the degree requirements as determined by a comparison of course outcomes. Relevant credit from nationally accredited and vocational institutions and organizations is applied to the Franklin degree as technical credit and may apply for specific credit. In order to award technical and specific credit, the institution's curriculum must meet our standards and the course or courses must meet Franklin requirements for depth and rigor.  


The information in the tables below reflects the fact that students must complete 40 semester hours of residency at Franklin, but the transfer student may transfer in as many as 84 semester hours of coursework. Bilateral agreements for colleges participating in the Community College Alliance, GoArmyU agreements, and transfer and articulation agreements for local technical and vocational training programs identify the credits which transfer and their application to the Bachelor's degree programs. If an individual student seeks transfer credit outside the bilateral agreements, the Credit Review Form is used to evaluate prior learning.


Credit Hours Required for the Bachelor's Degree
(Hours Vary)

 

General Education

Business core

Major Area

University Electives

Technical Credit

Completion Degrees

50

16

20

14

24

BSAD

50

24

28

22

N/A


Credit Hour Degree Requirements Including
Technical Credit Transferred in from Regionally Accredited Colleges

 

General Education

Business core

Major Area

University Electives

Technical Credit

Completion Degrees

*

*

*

*

24

BSAD

*

*

*

*

N/A

*Coursework will be evaluated for specific course credit applicable to general education, business core, and major area degree components.

 


Franklin University Articulation and Transfer Policy and Procedures Manual
Appendix 2: Transfer of D Grades

The Ohio Board of Regents Articulation and Transfer Advisory Council issued a policy on the Transfer of D Grades in 2005. That policy states that "as of Fall 2005, Ohio public institutions of higher education are to accept and apply all transfer coursework with a letter grade of D or higher as the institution would for a native student under the business rules an academic policies of the receiving institution. These business rules and policies may include, but are not limited to, such areas as effective course dates, age of coursework, requirements of a particular major or program, and eligibility" (Ohio Board of Regents, Appendix D).  In May and December 2005, the advisory council provided ten points of clarification for this policy. Some of these points are relevant to Franklin's transfer policies and are noted below:


  1. "This policy was adopted to ensure the equitable treatment of transfer students with native students across Ohio's public institutions of higher education." As applied to D grades, Franklin will treat transfer students as native students.
  2. "State-assisted colleges and Universities which offer D as the lowest passing grade are required to accept all college level courses with a grade of D or higher." As Franklin offers D grades, the university accepts all college level courses with a grade of D or higher.
  3. Not at issue.
  4. "While state assisted institutions are only required by this policy to accept D/D- graded courses from other Ohio state-assisted colleges and universities, they have the option to extend their policy to accept such course credit from other regionally accredited institutions." Franklin will accept D graded courses from regionally accredited institutions.
  5. Not at issue.
  6. Not at issue.
  7. Not at issue.
  8. Not at issue.
  9. "This policy does not override institutional admission standards and/or requirements of entrance into a specific academic program." Franklin does not have any institutional or program-specific admissions requirements to which this policy override would apply.
  10.  "Consistent with the spirit of the policy and clarification 2, there is no universal minimum grade or quality points for the acceptance of credit and thresholds for this are set by institutional grading policy at the D or D- level." Franklin applies this point of clarification to transfer of D grades.  (Ohio Board of Regents, Appendix D)

 

Franklin University Articulation and Transfer Policy and Procedures Manual
Appendix 3: Criteria for Comparability Consideration

Franklin University accepts transfer credit from 1) institutions that are regionally accredited as defined by OBR and 2) institutions that are accredited by national or professional agencies accredited by CHEA. In addition, Franklin accepts technical/vocational credit from institutions that are accredited by agencies recognized by the US Department of Education. This technical credit may fulfill degree requirements of Franklin's completion degrees. Recognition by USDE is based on a number of criteria for evaluation, as described below. Franklin considers that due diligence has been done and that the criteria for evaluation have been met by institutions accredited by an agency recognized by USDE. USDE criteria exceed those required by the American Council on Education (ACE) and the National Program on Non-collegiate Sponsored Instruction (PONSI).


Criteria for Evaluation

According to the US Department of Education, the Secretary recognizes accrediting agencies who have demonstrated compliance with a number of criteria. As outlined in 602.16, "the agency must demonstrate that it has standards for accreditation, and preaccreditation, if offered, that are sufficiently rigorous to ensure that the agency is a reliable authority regarding the quality of the education or training provided by the institutions or programs it accredits. The agency meets this requirement if -


  • The agency's accreditation standards effectively address the quality of the institution or program in the following areas:
    • Success with respect to student achievement in relation to the institution's mission, including, as appropriate, consideration of course completion, state licensing examination, and job placement rates.
    • Curricula
    • Faculty
    • Facilities, equipment, and supplies
    • Fiscal and administrative capacity as appropriate to the specified scale of operations
    • Student support services
    • Recruiting and admission practices, academic calendars, catalogs, publications, grading, and advertising
    • Measures of program length and the objectives of the degrees or credentials offered
    • Record of student complaints received by, or available to, the agency
    • Record of compliance with the institution's program responsibilities under Title IV of the Act, based on the most recent student loan default rate data provided by the Secretary, the results of financial or compliance audits, program reviews, and any other information that the Secretary may provide for the agency." (U. S. Department of Education, 602.16)

 

Because Franklin University accepts transfer credit from non-regionally accredited institutions, one of the first steps in reviewing applications for transfer credit is to determine whether the institution is accredited by an agency recognized by the USDE and CHEA. If the institution is accredited by an agency recognized by USDE, the next determination is whether the coursework is a) college level coursework leading to an associate's degree or bachelor's degree or b) vocational/technical coursework leading to a certificate or diploma. College-level coursework may be applied to any component of the Franklin degree, including general education and coursework in the major. Vocational/technical coursework may be applied only to the technical component of the completion degrees.


Credit from schools or organizations that are accredited by an agency recognized by the USDE are evaluated on the following criteria:

  • Evidence of assessment
  • Contact hours
  • Syllabus

 

Under certain circumstances, Franklin University also accepts transfer courses from institutions not accredited by an agency recognized by USDE. In such cases, the following criteria are required.


  • Accrediting Agency
  • Contact hours for the course/program
  • Evidence of assessment
  • Sample of Certificate/Transcript for Office of Transfer and Articulation
  • Evidence of Consistent Quality
    • Defined learning outcomes/objectives
    • Textbook
    • Sample assignment
    • Syllabus
    • Instructor qualifications

 

Staff members have worked with students to complete the review process, worked with schools/organizations to complete the institutional review process, and worked with Program Chairs at Franklin to develop the evaluation sheet used to review institutions.


The various accrediting agencies and the components they review are in the table below.

 

Accrediting Agency

ACE

PONSI

USDE

N/A

Franklin

X

Contact hours for the Course/Program

X

 

X

X

Syllabus

X

X

X

X

Evidence of Assessment/Grading

 

 

X

X

Evidence of Consistent Quality

X

X

*

X

      Defined Outcomes/Objectives

 

 

*

X

      Controlled Environment (Class time)

 

 

 

X

      Textbook Used

X

X

*

X

      Sample Assignment

X

X

X

X

      Instructor Qualifications

X

X

X

X


*While terminology differs, the components are similar. 

 

Name of institution

City

State

Community Colleges

 

 

Adirondack Community College

Queensbury

NY

Aims Community College

Greeley

CO

Ancilla College

Donaldson

IN

Arapahoe Community College

Littleton

CO

Arkansas Northeastern

Blytheville

AR

Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College

Asheville

NC

Atlantic Cape Community College

Mays Landing

NJ

Barton County Community College

Great Bend

KS

Bay College

Escanaba

MI

Belmont Technical College

St. Clairsville

OH

Black Hawk College

Moline

IL

Blackhawk Technical College

Janesville

WI

Burlington County College

Pemberton

NJ

Butler County Community College

Butler

PA

Carl Albert State College

Poteau

OK

Carl Sandburg College

Galesburg

IL

Casper College

Casper

WY

Catawba Valley

Hickory

NC

Cecil College

North East

MD

Central Carolina Community College

Sanford

NC

Central Maine Community College

Auburn

ME

Central Ohio Technical College

Newark

OH

Central Texas

Killeen

TX

Central Virginia Community College

Lynchburg

VA

Cerro Coso Community College

Ridgecrest

CA

Chatfield College

St. Martin

OH

Chippewa Valley Technical College

Eau Claire

WI

Cincinnati State Technical and Community College

Cincinnati

OH

Citrus College

Glendora

CA

City Colleges of Chicago - Harold Washington College

Chicago

IL

City Colleges of Chicago - Harry S. Truman College

Chicago

IL

City Colleges of Chicago - Kennedy King

Chicago

IL

City Colleges of Chicago - Malcolm X College

Chicago

IL

City Colleges of Chicago - Olive-Harvey College

Chicago

IL

City Colleges of Chicago - Richard J. Daley College

Chicago

IL

City Colleges of Chicago - Wilbur Wright College

Chicago

IL

Clark State Community College

Springfield

OH

Coastal Bend College

Beeville

TX

Cochise College

Douglas

AZ

College of Dupage

Glen Ellyn

IL

College of Lake County

Grayslake

IL

Colorado Mountain College

Steamboat Springs

CO

Colorado Northwestern Community College

Rangely

CO

Columbia-Greene Community College

Hudson

NY

Columbus State Community College

Columbus

OH

Community College of Aurora

Aurora

CO

Community College of Beaver County

Monaca

PA

Community College of Denver

Denver

CO

Copiah-Lincoln Community College

Wesson

MS

Corning Community College

Corning

NY

Cossatot Community College of the University of Arkansas

DeQueen

AR

Cumberland County College

Vineland

NJ

Cuyahoga Community College

Cleveland

OH

Danville Area Community College

Danville

IL

Danville Community College

Danville

VA

Davidson County Community College

Lexington

NC

Delta College

University Center

MI

East Central Community College

Decatur

MS

Eastern Iowa Community College - Clinton

Clinton

IA

Eastern Iowa Community College - Muscatine

Muscatine

IA

Eastern Iowa Community College - Scott

Scott

IA

Eastern Shore Community College

Melfa

VA

Eastern West Virginia Community and Technical College

Moorefield

WV

Edison College

Fort Myers

FL

Edison Community College

Piqua

OH

Elgin Community College

Elgin

IL

Erie Community College

Buffalo

NY

Evergreen Valley College

San Jose

CA

Fayetteville Technical College

Fayetteville

NC

Florence-Darlington Technical College

Florence

SC

Florida Community College at Jacksonville

Jacksonville

FL

Foothill College

Los Altos Hills

CA

Forsyth Technical Community College

Winston-Salem

NC

Fox Valley Technical College

Appleton

WI

Front Range Community College

Westminster

CO

Frontier Community College

Fairfield

IL

Fulton-Montgomery Community College

Johnstown

NY

Garrett College

McHenry

MD

Gateway Technical College

Kenosha

WI

Genesee Community College

Batavia

NY

Glen Oaks Community College

Centreville

MI

Gogebic Community College

Ironwood

MI

Great Bay Community College

Stratham

NH

Greenville Technical College

Greenville

SC

Harper College

Palatine

IL

Harrisburg Area Community College

Harrisburg

PA

Heald College

Hayward

CA

Heartland Community College

Normal

IL

Henry Ford Community College

Dearborn

MI

Herkimer County Community College

Herkimer

NY

Hocking College

Nelsonville

OH

Howard College

Big Spring

TX

Illinois Central College

East Peoria

IL

Illinois Valley Community College

Oglesby

IL

Inver Hills

Inver Grove Heights

MN

Itasca

Grand Rapids

MN

Itawamba Community College

Fulton

MS

Ivy Tech State College - Anderson

Anderson

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Bloomington

Bloomington

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Columbus

Columbus

IN

Ivy Tech State College - East Chicago

East Chicago

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Elkhart

Elkhart

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Evansville

Evansville

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Ft. Wayne

Ft. Wayne

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Gary

Gary

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Indianapolis

Indianapolis

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Kokomo

Kokomo

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Lafayette

Lafayette

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Lawrenceburg

Lawrenceburg

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Logansport

Logansport

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Madison

Madison

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Marion

Marion

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Michigan City

Michigan City

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Muncie

Muncie

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Richmond

Richmond

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Sellersburg

Sellersburg

IN

Ivy Tech State College - South Bend

South Bend

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Terre Haute

Terre Haute

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Valparaiso

Valparaiso

IN

Ivy Tech State College - Warsaw

Warsaw

IN

Jackson Community College

Jackson

MI

James A. Rhodes State College

Lima

OH

Jamestown Community College

Jamestown

NY

Jefferson College

Hillsboro

MO

Jefferson Community College

Watertown

NY

Jefferson Community College

Steubenville

OH

John A. Logan College

Carterville

IL

Johnson County Community College

Overland Park

KS

Joliet Junior College

Joliet

IL

Jones County JC

Ellisville

MS

Kalamazoo Valley Community College

Kalamazoo

MI

Kankakee Community College

Kankakee

IL

Kaskaskia College

Centralia

IL

Kellogg Community College

Battle Creek

MI

Kirtland Community College

Roscommon

MI

Kishwaukee College

Malta

IL

Lake Land College

Mattoon

IL

Lake Superior College

Duluth

MN

Lakeland Community College

Kirtland

OH

Lakes Region Community College

Laconia

NH

Lakeshore Technical College

Cleveland

WI

Lamar Community College

Lamar

CO

Lansing Community College

Lansing

MI

Lehigh Carbon Community College

Schnecksville

PA

Lewis and Clark Community College

Godfrey

IL

Lincoln Trail College

Robinson

IL

Lower Columbia College

Longview

WA

MacCormac College

Elmhurst

IL

Macomb Community College

Warren

MI

Madison Area Technical College

Madison

WI

Manchester Community College

Manchester

NH

Maricopa - Chandler-Gilbert Community College

Chandler

AZ

Maricopa - Estrella Mountain Community College

Avondale

AZ

Maricopa - GateWay Community College

Phoenix

AZ

Maricopa - Glendale Community College

Glendale

AZ

Maricopa - Mesa Community College

Mesa

AZ

Maricopa - Paradise Valley

Phoenix

AZ

Maricopa - Phoenix College

Phoenix

AZ

Maricopa - Rio Salado College

Tempe

AZ

Maricopa - Scottsdale Community College

Scottsdale

AZ

Maricopa - South Mountain Community College

Phoenix

AZ

Marion Technical College

Marion

OH

McHenry County College

Crystal Lake

IL

Mendocino College

Ukiah

CA

Mesalands Community College

Tucumcari

NM

Miami University Hamilton

Hamilton

OH

Miami University Middletown

Middletown

OH

Mid Michigan Community College

Harrison

MI

Mid-South Community College

West Memphis

AR

Mid-State Technical College

Wisconsin Rapids

WI

Milwaukee Area Technical College

Milwaukee

WI

Mohawk Valley Community College

Utica

NY

Monroe Community College

Rochester

NY

Monroe County Community College

Monroe

MI

Montcalm Community College

Sidney

MI

Moraine Park Technical College

Fond du Lac

WI

Morgan Community College

Fort Morgan

CO

Mount Wachusett Community College

Gardner

MA

Muskegon Community College

Muskegon

MI

Nashua Community College

Nashua

NH

Neosho County Community College

Chanute

KS

NHTI - Concord's Community College

Concord

NH

Niagara County Community College

Sanborn

NY

Nicolet Area Technical College

Rhinelander

WI

North Arkansas College

Harrison

AR

North Central Missouri College

Trenton

MO

North Central State College

Mansfield

OH

North Country Community College

Saranac Lake

NY

North Iowa Area Community College

Mason City

IA

Northampton Community College

Bethlehem

PA

Northcentral Technical College

Wausau

WI

Northeast Texas Community College

Mt. Pleasant

TX

Northeast Wisconsin Technical College

Green Bay

WI

Northeastern Junior College

Sterling

CO

Northern Wyoming

Sheridan

WY

NorthWest Arkansas Community College

Bentonville

AR

Northwest College

Powell

WY

Northwest Iowa Community College

Sheldon

IA

Northwest State Community College

Archbold

OH

Ocean County College

Toms River

NJ

Olney Central College

Olney

IL

Orange County CC

Middletown

NY

Otero Junior College

LaJunta

CO

Ouachita Technical College

Malvern

AR

Owens Community College

Toledo

OH

Parkland College

Champaign

IL

Patrick Henry Community College

Martinsville

VA

Pensacola Junior College

Pensacola

FL

Piedmont Community College

Roxboro

NC

Piedmont Technical College

Greenwood

SC

Pikes Peak Community College

Colorado Springs

CO

Pitt Community College

Winterville

NC

Pratt Community College

Pratt

KS

Pueblo Community College

Pueblo

CO

Red Rocks Community College

Lakewood

CO

Richland Community College

Decatur

IL

Richmond Community College

Hamlet

NC

River Valley Community College

Claremont

NH

Rock Valley College

Rockford

IL

Rockland Community College

Suffern

NY

Salt Lake Community College

Salt Lake City

UT

San Jacinto CC District

Pasadena

TX

Sandhills Community College

Pinehurst

NC

Sauk Valley Community College

Dixon

IL

Schoolcraft College

Livonia

MI

Shawnee Community College

Ullin

IL

Sinclair Community College

Dayton

OH

Southeastern Illinois College

Harrisburg

IL

Southern State Community College

Hillsboro

OH

Southern West Virginia Community and Technical College

Mt. Gay

WV

Southwest Wisconsin Technical College

Fennimore

WI

Southwestern Community College

Sylva

NC

Spoon River College

Canton

IL

St. Charles Community College

Cottleville

MO

St. Clair County Community College

Port Huron

MI

Stark State College of Technology

Canton

OH

Sullivan County Community College

Loch Sheldrake

NY

Temple College

Temple

TX

Terra State Community College

Fremont

OH

Trinidad State Junior College

Trinidad

CO

Vincennes University

Vincennes

IN

Wabash Valley College

Mt. Carmel

IL

Washington State Community College

Marietta

OH

Waubonsee Community College

Sugar Grove

IL

Waukesha County Technical College

Pewaukee

WI

West Hills College - Coalinga

Coalinga

CA

West Hills College - Lemoore

Lemoore

CA

Western Technical College

LaCrosse

WI

Western Wyoming Community College

Rock Springs

WY

Westmoreland County Community College

Youngwood

PA

White Mountains Community College

Berlin

NH

Wisconsin Indianhead Technical College

Shell Lake

WI

Zane State

Zanesville

OH

 

 

 

State Agreements

 

 

Colorado State Board for Community Colleges

Denver

CO

North Carolina CC System

Raleigh

NC

 

 

 

Career and Technical Centers

 

 

Adult & Community Education, Columbus City Schools

Columbus

OH

Adult Center for Education (Mid-East)

Zansville

OH

Apollo CC

Lima

OH

Ashland County -West Holmes Career Center

Ashland

OH

Buckeye Career Center

New Philadelphia

OH

Buckeye Hills Career Center

Rio Grande

OH

Butler Technology & Career Development

Hamilton

OH

Choffin Career and Technology Center

Youngstown

OH

Collins Career Center

Chesapeake

OH

Columbiana County Career Center

Lisbon

OH

C-Tec of Licking County

Newark

OH

Delaware Area Career Center

Delaware

OH

Eastland Fairfield Career and Technical Schools

Groveport

OH

Greene County Career Center

Xenia

OH

Knox County Career Center

Mount Vernon

OH

Lorain County JVS

Oberlin

OH

Madison Adult Career Center

Mansfield

OH

Medina County CC

Medina

OH

Miami Valley Career and Technical Center

Clayton

OH

Ohio Hi-Point Career Center

Bellefontaine

OH

Pickaway Ross Career and Technical Center

Chillicothe

OH

Pioneer Career and Technology Center

Shelby

OH

Portage Lakes CC

Green

OH

Scioto Valley JVS, Adult Education

Lucasville

OH

Tri-Rivers Center for Adult Education

Marion

OH

Trumbull Career and Technical Center

Warren

OH

Upper Valley JVS

Piqua

OH

Vanguard-Sentinel Career Centers

Fremont

OH

Warren County Career Center

Lebanon

OH

 

 

 

Proprietary Schools

 

 

American School of Technology

Columbus

OH

The Bradford School

Columbus

OH

Miami Jacobs Career College

Columbus

OH

Ohio Institute of Health Careers

Columbus

OH

ITT Technical Institute

Hilliard

OH

  Ohio Board of Regents.  (n.d.)  Appendix C.  Ohio Articulation and Transfer Policy.  Retrieved April 2, 2008, from http://regents.ohio.gov/transfer/policy/appendixC.php

Ohio Board of Regents.  (n.d.)  Appendix D.  Ohio Articulation and Transfer Policy.  Retrieved April 2, 2008, from http://regents.ohio.gov/transfer/policy/appendixD.php

Ohio Board of Regents.  (n.d.)  Appendix E.  Ohio Articulation and Transfer Policy.  Retrieved April 2, 2008, from http://regents.ohio.gov/transfer/policy/appendixE.php

Ohio Board of Regents.  (n.d.)  Background.  Ohio Career-Technical Credit Transferhttp://regents.ohio.gov/careertechtransfer/

Ohio Board of Regents.  (n.d.)  Preamble. Ohio Articulation and Transfer Policy.  Retrieved April 2, 2008, from http://regents.ohio.gov/transfer/policy/index.php

Ohio Board of Regents.  (n.d.)  Transfer Policy.  Ohio Articulation and Transfer Policy.  Retrieved April 2, 2008, from http://regents.ohio.gov/transfer/policy/transfer_policy_d2.php

U. S. Department of Education. (n.d.) 602.16 Accreditation and Preaccreditation Standards.   Financial Aid for Postsecondary Students. Retrieved April 2, 2008, from http://www.ed.gov/admins/finaid/accred/accreditation_pg14.html

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